Background: Hypothesis: Individuals living with HIV/AIDS have a higher predisposition to colonization, and a likely infection by Staphylococcus aureus, depending on their clinical and immunological conditions.
Methods: Cross-sectional study performed at two hospitalization units of a hospital located in upstate São Paulo, Brazil. A sample of nasal secretion was collected from HIV/AIDS patients hospitalized between August/2011 and February/2013, using a Stuart swab. The samples were processed in the microbiology laboratory, and descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. All ethical aspects were complied with.
Results: A total of 265 nasal secretion samples were collected, 60 (22.6%) of which tested positive for Staphylococcus aureus, 12 (20.0%) of which were oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Regarding the participants’ gender, 38 (63.3%) were male, and 22 (36.6%) were female; the predominant age group was 30 to 39 years (40.0%). Regarding the time since they received the HIV diagnosis, 17 (28.3%) had been aware of their condition for five years or less; 36 (60.0%) reported having been exposed to HIV through sexual relations; 23 (38.3%) reported not having been hospitalized over the previous six months. As for the clinical exam results, 16 (26.6%) patients had an HIV count ≤ 100 copies/mL; 25 (41.6%) of lymphocytes T CD4+ below 200 cells/mm3. It is emphasized that 42 (70/0%) were not following antibiotic therapy and 33 (55.0%) using antiretroviral therapy.
Conclusions: A growth of Staphylococcus aureus was observed in 22.6% of the collected nasal secretion samples of people living with HIV/AIDs, with oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in 20.0% of these. Knowledge of the factors associated to the colonization by Staphylococcus aureus is essential for the implementation of prevention and control of infections caused by this microorganism, most of all, for this particular population.