Background: Self-efficacy for condom use has been shown to be negatively associated with intimate partner violence among adolescent women, and self-efficacy and outcome expectancy have been shown to be related factors. However, research examining the association between self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and partner violence associated with HIV disclosure is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-efficacy for condom use, HIV disclosure and negotiation of safer practices, outcome expectancy for condom use, HIV disclosure and negotiation of safer sex practices, and partner violence associated with HIV disclosure among men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV.
Methods: Data were obtained from 338 MSM from the baseline assessment of a disclosure intervention (2009-2015). Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between self-efficacy and outcome expectancy for condom use, HIV disclosure, and negotiation of safer sex practices and partner violence after HIV disclosure.
Results: Approximately 6% reported being exposed to partner violence after HIV disclosure in the past 30 days. After adjusting for age and income, multivariable logistic regression models showed that every one point increase in self-efficacy for HIV disclosure score and every one point increase in outcome expectancy for HIV disclosure were associated with a 16% decrease (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72 – 0.98) and 21% decrease (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65 – 0.97) in the odds of reporting partner violence associated with HIV disclosure, respectively.
Conclusions: HIV disclosure intervention programs for MSM addressing partner violence associated with disclosure of HIV status should also aim to improve self-efficacy and outcome expectancy for HIV disclosure. These additional components may help to reduce partner violence which may occur after disclosing one’s HIV status to a sexual partner.